Feel like you’re wasting your time trying to read difficult texts? It’s time to start using tools that measure text difficulty.

The measuring of difficulty is called readability. Currently, readability of Japanese texts can be determined by three methods: sentence features, kanji level, and vocabulary frequency lists. Each method has a number of assumptions and limitations.


This retrospective is about the teachings of a leading UK university that will not be named.

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Social media like Twitter and Facebook seem to have taken the place of email to communicate with an audience. However, social media cannot be relied on to display information or notifications to our audience. Email is great for this purpose, and is just another way to assure that your message is being heard. It may seem simple to setup a newsletter list. All that is needed is a website form, and a database to store emails. But how do you send an email to everybody at once?